What is Migraine?
Migraine is a neurological condition that is mostly known as the problem of frequent headaches. It is the most common type of neurological disorder. This condition may last for a few days or a few hours ranging from severe to moderate levels of intensity. More than 10% of people worldwide suffer from migraine issues.
Women are 3 times more likely to get migraine than men. Migraine causes severe headaches and patients may experience painful throbbing and pulsing sensations. Also, this medical condition usually affects one side of the head. Although this is a neurological disorder, migraine is linked to psychological issues as well.
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Migraine?
We can understand Migraine with the most basic sign i.e. severe headaches. These headaches are in link to issues with the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The symptoms get more specific in the Migraine phases. Although, Migraine can be also known by other signs and symptoms like:
- Experience vision auras
- Frequent headache attacks
- Headache attacks lasting for more than 72 hours
What are the Types of Migraine?
Migraine is generally a headache problem that comes in various stages and types. Moreover, the types of migraine are as follows:
- Menstrual migraine- happens to women in the menstrual phase
- Vestibular migraine- causes motion problem
- Abdominal migraine- causes stomach problem
- Ophthalmic migraine/retinal migraine- loss of vision occurs
- Migraine with brainstem aura- affects the back of the head
- Status migrainosus- A worse headache that needs immediate medical attention
- Hemiplegic migraine- causes weakness in certain parts of the body sideways
- Ophthalmoplegic migraine- affect the eyes and causes muscle paralysis around it
What are the Phases of a Migraine?
A patient with a Migraine condition goes through four possible phases of a migraine attack. Also, these phases do not apply to all Migraine sufferers:
60% of migraine patients have symptoms of Prodrome or the premonitory phase. This phase starts two hours or two days before the next phase of aura and pain occurs. Also, this phase occurs in patients that do not experience aura during their migraine attack. Furthermore, according to neuroimaging, patients with migraine have problems in regions of the brain like the hypothalamus and limbic system are the roots or origin of this phase occurring to them. Additionally, in the prodrome phase, a person faces signs like:
- Mood swings
- Feeling agitated
- Feel euphoria
- Food cravings
- Stiff muscles
- Sensitivity to noise and smell
- Stiff muscles
- Stiff neck
Aura type of migraine is the second most common that affects 30 to 40% of migraine patients. This phase stays with a patient during a migraine attack for 5 to 60 minutes and gradually appears over time. Additionally, it is a neurological phenomenon that happens before or during the headache phase. In this phase, the field of vision flickers making patients unable to read or drive properly. Patients may also see zigzag lines of black, white, or multicolor for some time. Also, this phase’s symptoms are generally motoric, visual, and sensory. Furthermore, the symptoms of patients experiencing the aura phase are:
- Flickering of the field of vision in the eyes
- Blurring vision
- Zigzag lines
- Lose part of a vision
- Stinging sensation in body parts
- Tingling sensation
- Loss of position sense
- The world feels like spinning
- Auditory hallucinations
- Hemiplegic migraine
In the pain phase, the person experiences headaches that may last from 4 to 72 hours in adults and 1 hour in young children. Also. the pain gradually starts that can range from moderate to severe levels. This headache usually is unilateral and there’s throbbing pain. Additionally, if a person does physical activity then the pain is said to increase in migraine attacks as exercise triggers migraine.
In some cases, the pain can be bilateral and it includes the neck as well. Moreover, the bilateral type of pain phase happens mostly in people with non-aura migraine attacks. In some cases, the patients also face pain in areas in the back or top of the head. Furthermore, symptoms of the pain phase are:
- Sensitivity to light, sound, and smell
- Sense of world spinning
- Blurred vision
- Nose stuff
- Pale look
- Frequent urination
- Swelling or tenderness on the scalp
- Stiff neck
This phase consists of symptoms of all the phases. The painful phase of the headache gets settled. The region that was paining also feel sore after some time. Additionally, the person in this phase feels exhausted or gets into a hungover state. In some cases, patients also feel unusually refreshed or euphoric feeling after the attacks. However, some patients report depression and malaise as after effect of the migraine attack in the postdrome state. Furthermore, general symptoms of the postdrome phase are:
- Soring in some regions you went through the pain
- Hungover feeling
- Gastrointestinal symptoms
- Cognitive difficulties
- Mood swings
What are the Causes of Migraine?
The exact causes of migraine are still yet to be known but it is said that environment and genetics play a big role in this. Additionally, in two-thirds of cases migraine runs in family. More of causes some triggers can also lead to migraine conditions or attacks. However, here are some reasons that may cause or trigger your migraine as follows:
- Bright lights
- Noisy surroundings
- Weather changes
- Family history
- Bipolar disorder
- Sleep problems
- Hormonal changes
- Dairy products
- Intoxicant substance usage
- Nitrate rich proteins
- Consuming MSG (monosodium glutamate)
- Not getting enough food or sleep
- Consuming too much caffeine
- Weather changes
- Strong particular smell
- Tobacco consumption
- Changes in sleep patterns
How to Treat Migraine?
Most migraine treatment aims to stop and prevent the symptoms of migraine attack from recurring in patients before the next migraine attack spikes in. Also, There are specific medicines that are made just to treat migraine and combat this medical issue.
Here is a list of treatment methods or medications as follows:
- Most migraine treatment aims to stop and prevent the symptoms of migraine attack from recurring in patients before the next migraine attack spikes in. Moreover, there are specific medicines that are made just to treat migraine and combat this medical issue.
- However, here is a list of treatment methods or medications as follows:
- Beta-blockers drugs like metoprolol tartrate and propranolol
- Botox injections of onabotulinumtoxinA
- Also, Calcium channel blockers like verapamil fr aura type migraine
- Antidepressants like amitriptyline
- Furthermore, nasal spray or injection containing Dihydroergotamine (D.H.E. 45, Migranal)
- Also, Anti-seizure drugs like valproate and topiramate
- CGRP monoclonal antibodies like eptinezumab-jump, Erenumab-aooe, fremanezumab-vfrm, and galcanezumab-gnlm
- Moreover, pain relievers like ibuprofen or aspirin over-the-counter medications
- Triptans like sumatriptan and rizatriptan
- CGRP antagonists like rimegepant and Ubrogepant
- Opioid medications
- Anti-nausea drugs like prochlorperazine, chlorpromazine, or metoclopramide
Migraine is a neurological condition that is mostly known as the problem of frequent headaches. It is the most common type of neurological disorder. We can understand Migraine with the most basic sign i.e. severe headaches. Additionally, the symptoms get more specific in the Migraine phases. The exact causes of migraine are still yet to be known but it is said that environment and genetics play a big role in this. Most migraine treatment aims to stop and prevent the symptoms of migraine attack from recurring in patients before the next migraine attack spikes in. Moreover, there are specific medicines that are made just to treat migraine and combat this medical issue.
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